Dental implants are artificial substitutes for the root of natural teeth that are placed inside the bone to replace the root of the teeth that are absent from the mouth.
Once placed, a new tooth or prosthesis is fixed on them. The purpose of dental implants is that people who lack one or several teeth can chew, speak and smile normally.
Dental implants are mostly made of titanium, highly biocompatible material and widely used in various medical areas such as traumatology. This high biocompatibility offers maximum safety in the treatment.
The main advantage is that they allow one or several teeth to be replaced independently, that is, without having to lower the neighboring teeth, as occurs when placing a fixed bridge.
The percentage of success is greater than 97% of cases, which places them in the most predictable treatment option to replace one or several teeth.
The dental implant is a medical device intended to be the artificial substitute for the root of a lost tooth.
It usually has a threaded shape and is made of biocompatible materials that do not produce a rejection reaction and allow its union with bone.
The surface of the implant can have different textures and coatings, commonly used to increase its adhesion to bone (osseointegration if it is titanium and biointegration if it is a ceramic material).
When replacing the lost teeth by means of implants, a greater amount of alveolar bone is conserved since this is reabsorbed by not receiving any type of stimulus.
Types of dental implant
Dental implants are classified as endoosseous implant and sub-periosteal implantations. It is true that for terminological reasons new names have appeared to refer to the classification of dental implants: bifid, needles, thin crests, multidimensional … however, all of them obey the same laws.
The implants that do not penetrate the bone, but cover its surface are called, in France, subperiostes, and have been given the most exact name of juxta-osseous.
The Anglo-Saxon countries continue to call this implant surface, subperiostal. The juxta-osseous or subperiosteal implants were introduced in 1940. They are metallic elements introduced under the mucosa and rest contacting the jaws or jaws.
They are made in the prosthesis laboratory, from models of the maxilla, for the most part they are made with chrome-cobalt-molybdenum alloys, and sometimes they are coated with carbon or ceramic.
The morphology may differ in some points, but all implants that have the principle of penetrating the thickness of the bone are always, and simply, endo-osseous implants, for which the use of the scalpel and the detachment of the mucous membrane are necessary; These implants can be metallic, vitrified carbon, ceramic, organic or semi-biological material.
Although there are multiple classifications of endo-osseous implants, it is pointed out, generally, that these dental implants are divided into cylindrical, threaded, laminated and thin crest.